Italian words –
Technical names of notes –
There are seven notes in a scale. Each note can be identified by a technical name:
- LEADING NOTE
You need to know four clefs for the test:
- TREBLE CLEF
- ALTO CLEF
- TENOR CLEF
- BASS CLEF
The treble and bass clefs are by far the most widely used. The alto clef is used only by the viola. The tenor clef is used (as well as the bass clef) by the cello and the trombone, when they need to avoid switching between bass and treble clef in some passages.
Chord descriptions –
In Grade 5 Theory, you only have to recognise chords I, II, IV and V.
When the root is the lowest note, the chord is in root position.
Chords can also be inverted (re-ordered).
When a chord is “inverted” the position of the notes is changed around so that the lowest note of the chord is the third or the fifth, rather than the root. We use a lower-case “a” to signify root position, “b” for first inversion (the 3rd is the bottom note) and “c” for second inversion (the 5th is the bottom note).
We use the letters a, b and c (written in lower case letters) to describe the lowest note of a chord.
When the chord is in root position (hasn’t been inverted), we use the letter a.
When the lowest note is the third, (e.g. E in C major), we use the letter b. This is also called first inversion.
When the lowest note is the fifth, (e.g. G in C major), we use the letter c. This is also called second inversion.
Here is chord I in C major, in its three possible positions:
Compound time signatures –
Instruments of the Orchestra –
Voice Parts –
French Words –
Major Scales –
Chromatic Scales –
Beaming Notes –
Make sure you watch all three videos in the series!